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Not you? Radical Women is the oldest socialist feminist organization in the U. Although she supported equal rights for women, she opposed women fighting on the front and clashed with the anarcha-feminist Mujeres Libres. Feminists in Ireland in the early 20th century included the revolutionary Irish Republican , suffragette and socialist Constance Markievicz who in was the first woman elected to the British House of Commons. Fascism has been prescribed dubious stances on feminism by its practitioners and by women's groups. Amongst other demands concerning social reform presented in the Fascist manifesto in was expanding the suffrage to all Italian citizens of age 18 and above, including women accomplished only in , after the defeat of fascism and eligibility for all to stand for office from age This demand was particularly championed by special Fascist women's auxiliary groups such as the fasci femminilli and only partly realized in , under pressure from dictator Benito Mussolini 's more conservative coalition partners.
Cyprian Blamires states that although feminists were among those who opposed the rise of Adolf Hitler , feminism has a complicated relationship with the Nazi movement as well. While Nazis glorified traditional notions of patriarchal society and its role for women, they claimed to recognize women's equality in employment. The civil rights movement has influenced and informed the feminist movement and vice versa.
Many Western feminists adapted the language and theories of black equality activism and drew parallels between women's rights and the rights of non-white people. Neoliberalism has been criticized by feminist theory for having a negative effect on the female workforce population across the globe, especially in the global south. Masculinist assumptions and objectives continue to dominate economic and geopolitical thinking. Proponents of neoliberalism have theorized that by increasing women's participation in the workforce, there will be heightened economic progress, but feminist critics have noted that this participation alone does not further equality in gender relations.
From the s on, the campaign for women's rights  was met with mixed results  in the U. Other countries of the EEC agreed to ensure that discriminatory laws would be phased out across the European Community.
Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica 中央研究院近代史研究所
Some feminist campaigning also helped reform attitudes to child sexual abuse. The view that young girls cause men to have sexual intercourse with them was replaced by that of men's responsibility for their own conduct, the men being adults. Reproductive rights in the U. Wade enunciating a woman's right to choose whether to carry a pregnancy to term. Western women gained more reliable birth control , allowing family planning and careers.
The movement started in the s in the U. In the final three decades of the 20th century, Western women knew a new freedom through birth control , which enabled women to plan their adult lives, often making way for both career and family. The division of labour within households was affected by the increased entry of women into workplaces in the 20th century.
Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild found that, in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework,   although Cathy Young responded by arguing that women may prevent equal participation by men in housework and parenting. Brown writes, "Women are most likely to make a substantial contribution when subsistence activities have the following characteristics: the participant is not obliged to be far from home; the tasks are relatively monotonous and do not require rapt concentration; and the work is not dangerous, can be performed in spite of interruptions, and is easily resumed once interrupted.
It came into force in those nations ratifying it. Feminist jurisprudence is a branch of jurisprudence that examines the relationship between women and law. It addresses questions about the history of legal and social biases against women and about the enhancement of their legal rights. Feminist jurisprudence signifies a reaction to the philosophical approach of modern legal scholars , who typically see law as a process for interpreting and perpetuating a society's universal, gender-neutral ideals.
Feminist legal scholars claim that this fails to acknowledge women's values or legal interests or the harms that they may anticipate or experience. Proponents of gender-neutral language argue that the use of gender-specific language often implies male superiority or reflects an unequal state of society. Merriam-Webster chose "feminism" as its Word of the Year, noting that "Word of the Year is a quantitative measure of interest in a particular word.
Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures, and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God, determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts. Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in light of the equality of women and men, and that this interpretation is necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity.
While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of sex, and are involved in issues such as the ordination of women , male dominance and the balance of parenting in Christian marriage , claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of women compared to men, and the overall treatment of women in the church.
Islamic feminists advocate women's rights, gender equality , and social justice grounded within an Islamic framework. Advocates seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Quran and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran, hadith sayings of Muhammad , and sharia law towards the creation of a more equal and just society. Buddhist feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Buddhism.
It is an aspect of feminist theology which seeks to advance and understand the equality of men and women morally, socially, spiritually, and in leadership from a Buddhist perspective. The Buddhist feminist Rita Gross describes Buddhist feminism as "the radical practice of the co-humanity of women and men. Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women.
The main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or minyan , the exemption from positive time-bound mitzvot , and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate divorce. Dianic Wicca is a feminist-centred thealogy. Secular or atheist feminists have engaged in feminist criticism of religion, arguing that many religions have oppressive rules towards women and misogynistic themes and elements in religious texts. Patriarchy is a social system in which society is organized around male authority figures. In this system fathers have authority over women, children, and property.
It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege, and is dependent on female subordination.
Carole Pateman argues that the patriarchal distinction "between masculinity and femininity is the political difference between freedom and subjection. Feminist theory typically characterizes patriarchy as a social construction, which can be overcome by revealing and critically analyzing its manifestations.
Feminist theory has explored the social construction of masculinity and its implications for the goal of gender equality. The social construct of masculinity is seen by feminism as problematic because it associates males with aggression and competition, and reinforces patriarchal and unequal gender relations.
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Male participation in feminism is generally encouraged by feminists and is seen as an important strategy for achieving full societal commitment to gender equality. However, some argue that while male engagement with feminism is necessary, it is problematic because of the ingrained social influences of patriarchy in gender relations.
Different groups of people have responded to feminism, and both men and women have been among its supporters and critics. Among American university students, for both men and women, support for feminist ideas is more common than self-identification as a feminist. Pro-feminism is the support of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement.
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The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism. The activities of pro-feminist men's groups include anti-violence work with boys and young men in schools, offering sexual harassment workshops in workplaces, running community education campaigns, and counselling male perpetrators of violence.
Pro-feminist men also may be involved in men's health, activism against pornography including anti-pornography legislation, men's studies , and the development of gender equity curricula in schools. This work is sometimes in collaboration with feminists and women's services, such as domestic violence and rape crisis centres. Anti-feminism is opposition to feminism in some or all of its forms. In the nineteenth century, anti-feminism was mainly focused on opposition to women's suffrage. Later, opponents of women's entry into institutions of higher learning argued that education was too great a physical burden on women.
Other anti-feminists opposed women's entry into the labour force, or their right to join unions, to sit on juries, or to obtain birth control and control of their sexuality. Some people have opposed feminism on the grounds that they believe it is contrary to traditional values or religious beliefs. These anti-feminists argue, for example, that social acceptance of divorce and non-married women is wrong and harmful, and that men and women are fundamentally different and thus their different traditional roles in society should be maintained.
They argue, for example, that feminism often promotes misandry and the elevation of women's interests above men's, and criticize radical feminist positions as harmful to both men and women. Secular humanism is an ethical framework that attempts to dispense with any unreasoned dogma, pseudoscience, and superstition. Critics of feminism sometimes ask "Why feminism and not humanism?
Some humanists argue however that the goals of feminists and humanists largely overlap, and the distinction is only in motivation. For example, a humanist may consider abortion in terms of a utilitarian ethical framework, rather than considering the motivation of any particular woman in getting an abortion.